Human Habitats Are Affecting Animal Migration Patterns

HOW ARE HUMAN HABITATS AFFECTING ANIMAL MIGRATION PATTERNS?

The fact that humans are having an impact on how animals behave may not be news to many, but as a recent City Lab article shows,ut to visualize this phenomenon on a global scale is truly unique. This topic is what some of the chapters in the book, Where Animals Go, take a look at. Essentially, the book focuses on the visualization of movements of more than 35 animals, using various tracking technologies.

The Data of White Stork Migration
The main reason for animals to migrate is to forage (eat) or to mate. White storks migrate from across Europe, certain parts of Central Asia, and Africa to other areas with lush vegetation and ,thus, food. The supply of food rises and drops with seasons, so warmer seasons may have greater supply than winters. When it is winter in the northern hemisphere, it is summer in the southern hemisphere. Therefore, storks may move around from north to south and south to north following the seasons in search of food.

However, there is a cost to migration. Since energy is spent on flying, storks must make a decision on how far they are willing to fly to get food as if they don’t get enough food along the route they are following, they might die. This is especially prominent among younger juvenile storks, as they are still growing.
If food is easily available, one can hypothesize that it is better to not fly so far at all. This is what is being observed in the migrations of certain groups of storks. Researchers mapped 70 juvenile storks using Global Positioning System (GPS) as they migrated in one season. Of these, eight storks died before they could migrate. All of the storks being tracked were from eight different geographic locations shown below.



Fig. 1: Migratory movement of tracked individuals from eight different populations. (A) Migration paths (B) Departure dates of individual storks. Color scale indicates departure dates (white indicating no departure). (C) Departure date as a function of maximum distance reached (each color represents one population). Dots in the light gray–shaded area represent individuals that left, but survived for less than 150 days. Source: Flack et al. (2016).

The researchers observed that individuals from Poland, Russia, and Greece followed the traditional eastern route via the Sahel Region of Africa up to South Africa. This can be interpreted from Fig. 1 (C), showing the departure date as a function of distance covered. The storks from these regions covered the longest distances. Similarly, the ones from Spain and Tunisia also followed the routes to vegetated areas of Africa, while some from Spain also did the same. However, four out of six individuals from Southwest Germany (orange dots) ended up spending at least five months on the landfills of Morocco. Similar behavior was hypothesized for the storks from Uzbekistan as they did not move to their traditional grounds of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Some storks who eventually migrated may also have been delayed in their migration by the opportunity to feed by just flying a shorter distance. The researchers also note that feeding on landfills has been observed for storks predominantly in Spain and sometimes in Europe.


Fig. 2: Activity of storks (as a measure for energy expenditure) in relation to human population density and vegetation cover. Daily activity as a function of human population density (B) and vegetation cover of shrubs and low-lying bushes (hence “low” vegetation cover) (D). Blue and light brown correspond to birds that overwintered, or stayed at a location after winter, north and south of 33°N, respectively. Plots on the top and the side are the density histograms of population density (A), vegetation cover (C), and Activity (E).

From the above figures we see that most storks were moving around, or were active, in areas of low population density. It can be observed that storks generally prefer areas of low population density and higher vegetation cover. However, some storks to the north of 33°N, i.e. in the northern hemisphere in Europe, North Africa and Central Asia, stayed in areas of high population density. They are represented by the blue cluster of points to the right in Fig. 2 (A). It is these storks that were feeding on the landfills. We can also observe that they had a lower activity or energy expenditure than the ones who preferred areas of higher vegetation cover.

Other interesting examples noted in the book are the effects of highways on cougars in California and the movement of baboons while they try to avoid human villages. It is important to understand animals movements, as each species plays a role in the ecosystems in which it exists or is part of, even if for a short time. Animals that migrate affect the ecology, pest behavior and populations, pollination, dynamics of infectious diseases, and a number of different factors. Therefore, understanding migration patterns and their implications can allow a better understanding of the behavior of ecosystems, especially the ones which we depend upon.
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Sophia Kim

23 comments :

  1. Replies
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  2. إذا كنت ترغب في الحصول على مياه نقية افضل شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالقصيم و خالية من الجراثيم و الميكروبات فلابد ان تقوم بتوفير افضل شركة عزل خزانات بالقصيم أجود خامات العزل على الخزان و التي يتم تركيبها في الجدرا و في قاع الخزان و ذلك من اجل المحافظة افضل شركة اسطح خزانات بالقصيم على منع تعرض أشعة الشمس بشكل مباشر على المياه و تسلطها بشكل افضل شركة مكافحة حشرات بالقصيم دائم مما يؤدي إلى التغيير في الخواص الفيزيائية في مكونات المياه

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  3. لدى الصراصير جهاز استشعار شركة تنظيف بالبخار بجدة حساس جدًا موجود في قرونها مع العلم أنها شركة مكافحة حشرات بجدة لا عين لها ولا تستطيع الرؤية لكنها إن دخلت شركة تنظيف خزانات بجدة في منزل فإنها سرعان ما تهاجمه وبالتالي يصعب السيطرة شركة تنظيف شقق بجدة عليها حيث أنها تتكاثر بسرعة وبأعداد كبيرة فإذا كان منزلك به صراصير شركة مكافحة البق بجدة فمن الأفضل الاتصال بشركة متخصصة للقضاء عليها في الحال.

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  4. في البداية نحرص عبلي شركة تنظيف بالبخار بجدة ان يتم تفريغ الخزان من المياه شركة تنظيف خزانات بجدة و من بعدها نقوم بتوفير النظافة الدقيقة شركة مكافحة العتة بجدة لجميع اجزاءه الداخلية و الخارجية و من شركة مكافحة حشرات بجدة بعدها نحرص علي ان يتم اتباع افضل مواد العزل الامنة و التي شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بجدة لا يمكن ان تلحث اي نوع من الضرر بالانسان و لهذا تواصل معنا عزيزي العميل لتجد شركة مكافحة العتة بجدةخدمة تنظيف للخزان الخاص بالمنزل

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  5. من الممكن أن يحصل العملاء شركة تجهيز ملاعب على أفضل أنواع النجيل الصناعي التي يرغبون شركة نجيل صناعي بها و التي تتنوع بين أكثر من شكل مختلف حيث يوجد النجيل المتداخل ، النحيف و العريض شركة تنسيق حدائق أيضا و جميع تلك الأنواع متوفرة في شركة لاندسكيب بالقاهرة من أجل أن تحقق إليكم الخدمات التي ترغبون شركة تجهيزات حمامات سباحة في الحصول عليها و ذلك لأننا متميزون في نجيل صناعى للحدائق مجال تركيب النجيل الصناعي و نحاول أن نلبي جميع احتياجات عملائنا

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  6. إن عرقلة الأنابيب والصرف الصحي هي تسليك مجاري بالكويت واحدة من أسوأ المشاكل التي يواجهها تسليك مجاري الكويت رب البيت ويمكن الآن حلها بسهولة من قبل أفضل الشركات لتنظيف المجاري في الكويت تسليك مجاري على أعلى مستوى ، لأن مشكلة انسداد المجاري تؤثر على وجود روائح كريهة تسليك مجاري بالكويت لا تحظى بشعبية لجميع أعضاء المنزل وتؤثر على الناس

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  7. تعتبر الواجهات شركة تنظيف بدبي من أهم الأماكن التي يجب تنظيفها على أكمل وجه، حيث أن نظافة شركة تنظيف بالشارقة الواجهات هي دليل على نظافة المنزل؛ لهذا شركة تنظيف بدبي يجب الاهتمام بها بشكل كبير وذلك من خلال شركة تنظيف فى دبي التواصل مع شركة تنظيف واجهات منازل في الشارقة شركة تنظيف بعجمان فإن الشركة سوف تتمكن من القيام بهذه المهمة مع اختلاف أنواع المنظفات

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  8. عندما يكون هناك ارتباط بين عملية التنظيف شركة تنظيف شقق بمكة وانتشار الأمراض والجراثيم شركة مكافحة حشرات بمكة يجب ان يتم التخلص من جميع الأتربة والأوساخ في المكان مثل الشقة او الفيلا او المنزل الذي نعيش بداخله شركة مكافحة حشرات بالطائف حتى يتم حماية أطفالنا من خطر الإصابة بالأمراض وتوفر شركة تنظيف منازل بمكة جميع خدمات شركة تنظيف خزانات بالطائف التنظيف سواء التنظيف العادي او خدمات غسيل شقق بمكة او غسيل منازل بمكة شركة تنظيف خزانات بمكة ومن أهم ما يتم القيام به لخروج الخدمة بصورة مشرفة أمام العملاء

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  9. نحن متخصصون في مجال التنظيف بالبخار لثقتنا شركة تنظيف بالبخار بجدة الدائمة في أن النظافة وحدها لا تكفى ويجب أن نوفر التعقيم شركة تنظيف بالبخار بمكة والتطهير معها لضمان مكان نظيف وصحي شركة تنظيف بجدة خالي تماماً من البكتريا والجراثيم خاصة شركة نقل عفش بمكة في وجود الأطفال فالبخار تقنية شديدة التأثير في قتل البكتريا والجراثيم لذلك نحرص على استخدامه ونوفر شركة تنظيف سجاد بالبخار بجدة أحدث التقنيات التي تعمل بالبخار لتقديم خدمات على مستوى عالي من الدقة والإتقان وتقوم

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  10. وقد اثبتت الدراسة والابحاث ان تلوث مياه الخزان شركة نقل عفش بجدة نتيجة المواد المصنوع منها الخزان ويعتبرافضل انواع الخزانات المصنوعة شركة تنظيف بالبخار بجدة من الحديد المجلفن او المصنوع من الزجاج وهم واقل عرضه للتلوث واغلاقه بطريقة جيدة فحرصا منا نحن شركة غسيل خزانات بالطائف شركة مكافحة حشرات بمكة على صحتنا وصحة اطفالنا يجب شركة تنظيف خزانات بالطائف تنظيف خزان المياه بصفة دورية حتى نتفادى جميع الامراض شركة تنظيف كنب بدبي ونقي اولادنا وانفسنا منها ونستخدم الخزان المصنوع من الصلب الغير قابل للصدا والمصرح به من وزارة الصحة.

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  11. عملية النظافة يجب ان تكون سلوك لدي المتواجدين شركة تنظيف بمكة في المكان فلا يمكن ان يتم إجبار فرد على التنظيف شركة مكافحة حشرات بمكة والعيش في مكان خالي من الأتربة اذا لم يكن لدية ذلم السلوك الحضاري الراقي شركة تنظيف بالبخار بمكة وعليه يجب على الأفراد دائما مساعدة شركة نقل عفش بمكة افراد العائلة أثناء عميلة التنظيف وزرع ورح شركة تنظيف خزانات بمكة النظافة داخل أبنائنا وأسرنا وعندما تتعرض إلى الاوساخ الصعبة فان في الجوار

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  12. يمكنك التواصل مع شركة تنظيف بدبي في أي وقت من أجل أن يقوم فريق العمال شركة تنظيف بالشارقة و الخبراء بالحضور إلى المنزل في الميعاد الذي تقوم شركة تنظيف بعجمان بتحديده حيث أن الفريق معروف بمدى التزامه بالمواعيد و الاتقان شركة تنظيف بابو ظبي في العمل فنحن نرغب في توفير الخدمة المثالية التي تمكنا من الحصول شركة تنظيف كنب بدبي على ثقة العميل الكبيرة بنا فنحن نجتهد لكي نستحق تلك الثقة بشكل مستمر

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  13. يعمل فريق الخبراء على تقديم التصاميم حجر هاشمى هيصم المختلفة الخاصة بالمطابخ أو الحمامات شركة تنظيف بدبي و يمكنك الاختيار فيما بينها و هذا من خلال حجر مايكا تسليك مجاري بالكويت الذي يعمل على توفير الدعم و القوة على الغرف الموجودة في المنزل و تتعامل الشركة رقم صباغ رخيص بالكويت معكم بأقل الاسعار و التكاليف التي فني كهرباء منازل بالكويت لا مثيل لها في أي مكان آخر

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    weak erection
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  16. Hello viewers around the Globe, I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr, OMOHAN and i decided to contact him on his EMAIL i saw on the internethttp:/{dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com} so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, ” and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend Ella, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr OMOHAN I also learn that Dr OMOHAN also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr OMOHAN now for help on his email {dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com} or whats app him number: +2348164816038}

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  17. My name is David Richardson from USA I want to share a testimony of how Dr Perfect herbal mixture cream saved me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing and I was also having weak erection problem. I can't make love to my wife and my penis was just too small, a full grown man like me having 3 inches penis and to worsen it I don't last long in sex I can't even last four minutes it was really a big shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor, she never enjoyed sex, I was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when I saw a testimony of how Dr Perfect herbal mixture cream have been helping people regarding their sex life, so I decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 10 inches I couldn't believe my eyes and as I speak now my penis is now 10 inches long and I don't have weak erection anymore. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable my wife is now enjoy me very well in bed. All thanks to Dr Perfect for enlarging my penis he indeed save my marriage. You can contact him at solutiontoallproblems1@gmail.com or you can add him up on WhatsApp +1(256) 251 3614. He also specializes in the following things
    Herpes virus
    Cancer
    Hsv
    Chronic venous disease
    and others

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  18. Hello everyone. I was heartbroken because i had very small penis, not nice to satisfy a woman, i had so many relationship called off because of my situation, i have used so many product which i found online but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments about this doctor called Dr. OMOHAN and I decided to email him on: dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal cream for Penis Enlargement, Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 2 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer and strong. I'm so happy..feel free to contact DR omohan on his Email: dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com or you can also call him on the whatsapp contact +2348164816038

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