The Data of the Flint Water Crisis

After the city of Flint, Michigan changed its water source from Lake Huron to the Flint River in April 2014, the quality of water concerned residents. Some reports showed that the percentage of children with elevated levels of lead in their blood was doubled. Figure 1 shows children’s blood lead levels change from 2013 to 2015 in nine districts of Flint. Lead is a neurotoxin, which has no “safe level of exposure”. Newer research asserts that it may “increases the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities and potentially violent behavior.” And lead can also affect DNA, carrying damage to children of this generation and the next.
 
Figure 1


The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality conducted a study to show the public that the water was safe. However, months later, under the insistence of local residents, Marc Edwards, who is a national expert on corrosion control and had solved the water crisis in D.C., was engaged in the study. He with his team, “Flint Water Study” finally confirmed that the government had underestimated the problem. The water had toxic waste, which contained a high concentration of lead. Further, the government didn’t use the federally required corrosion control to prevent the lead from leaching out of the old pipes.

The City had trouble collecting the samples, so they dropped the requirements and collected only 60 of 100 samples from all districts of Flint. Additionally, the city asked residents to clean the system the night before and test the water six hours after it had been sitting. They also used bottles with small necks to collect the water sample, all of which may lower the concentration of lead. Following these standards, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality concluded that the water was safe.

However, Marc Edwards, with his team, did a more comprehensive test, which included 271 samples in each of the city’s ZIP codes. They tested the water three times in different conditions in order to increase the reliability of the study. The results showed that 20% of the water had lead levels higher than 15 ppb, which based on the federal law, should "trigger public warning."

In Figure 2, we can evaluate the different representations of samplings carried out by the Department of Environmental Quality and the Flint Water Study’s Analysis. In the first case the sample was small, considering only two out of the ten wards in the city, while in the second map we can see that the sample reached almost all of Flint.  

Figure 2


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Xuewei Chen

1 comment :


  1. خدمات النظافة بالدمام لابد ان تقدمها شركة لديها ثقة في اتمام خدمات النظافة المنزلية لان النظافة العاية لا تعطي النتيجة الفعالة التي تتم بواسطة شركة تنظيف بالدمام متخصصة لانها تهتم بكل شئ داخل المباني فلدينا شركة تنظيف فلل بالدمام تكون متخصصة في نظافة الفلل المفروشة والمستعملة واعطائها الرونق الجمالي الخاص بها لدينا شركة تنظيف شقق بالدمام متخصصة في اعمال نظافة الشقق المنزلية وشقق المكاتب والمعارض بواسطة الادوات والمواد اللازمة لعمل ذلك لدينا تخصصتنا في اعمالنا التي ترضي العميل وتخلصة من الحشرات الصغيرة التي تسبب ازعاج كبير للاسرة من خلال شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام التي لديها معدتها وموادها لعمل ذلك كما يوجد متخصص ايضا للقضاء علي الحشرات من خلال التواصل مع شركة رش مبيدات بالدمام التي تنتهيك من كل الحشرات المنزلية كما نعمل معا للواصل اليك كل الخدمات المنزلية من خلال خدمة الاثاث بواسطة افضل شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام والتعامل معها سوف يصل الي منزلك الجيد بدون اي تعب
    كما يوجد خدمتنا الاخري التي يمكنك البحث عنها م والاستفادة منها
    شركة تنظيف بالقطيف
    شركة تنظيف بالجبيل
    شركة تنظيف بالاحساء




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