Countries with high fertility rates will likely contribute substantially to these population increases. According to the United Nations, these countries include 39 countries in African, 9 in Asia, and 4 in Latin America. The United Nations identifies all European countries (with the exception of Iceland and Ireland) as low-fertility countries. According to the report, the United Nations's projections anticipate a decline in Europe's overall population by 2100. Low-fertility countries are characterized by women not having enough children to guarantee that, on average, each woman will be replaced by a daughter who lives long enough to reproduce.